Cancer and Exercise - Cancer kills. Exercise is powerful medicine. Take it daily. Take it wisely. Learn how here.


Cancer and Exercise

Home health patients and caregivers should consider the pros and cons about cancer and exercise.

Cancer and exercise can seem like mixing water and oil. When patients and caregivers are dealing with the stresses of not only the disease, but the treatment, both individuals can wear, putting greater strain on the body - encouraging more sickness.

In addition to the extensive known benefits of exercise, unknown benefits add to it's powerful positive impact on the body. Whether walking to the kitchen sink every hour, the mail box or training for the next Tour de France, exercise increases oxygen levels in the body and simply put, disease cannot survive in an oxygen saturated environment.

Cancer and exercise do go hand in hand. Where to start. At times the symptoms can seem to contradict exercise. Even simple exercises!

Cancer.org estimated that over half a million people would die of cancer in America in 2008.

That's a half a million too many!

If you have cancer and exercise is part of your treatment or cancer cure, ACSM's Exercise Management for Persons with Chronic Diseases and Disabilities-3rd EditionACSM's Exercise Management for Persons with Chronic Diseases and Disabilities offers some valuable tips on designing and implementing and exercise routine as part of your cancer treatment in addition to the ones below.


Cancer and Exercise - Do they mix?

Yes. There are days and perhaps times when they don't. Your response to exercise can different from day to day and as individual as you are!

The exercise response in cancer patients will be determined by two things:

  • The cancer itself
  • The chosen anti cancer therapy

With most diseases come limitations, disease or treatment specific. Cancer is no exception.

  • Shortness of breath
  • Pain
  • Tumors affecting motor movement
  • Neural Deficits
  • Seizures
  • Anemia
All disease specific complications demand exercise modification to fit individual needs.

Generally cancer's effect on the exercise is determined by the tissues involved and the extent of the involvement such as:

  • Tumors in the body affecting surrounding tissues
  • Musculoskeletal system
  • Lung involvement
  • Brain and Central Nervous System
  • Bone Marrow

How Will Exercise Effect Cancer?

Cancer and an exercise programs can be very beneficial for cancer patients providing it is tailored to each one's specific needs.

Objectives will change individually.

Considerations include:

  • Current treatment
  • Cancer survivors

Objectives include:

  • Maintaining strength, endurance and current level of function for active treatment patients
  • Returning survivors to prior level of function

If you've been through cancer treatment or been around those with cancer, it can seem impossible that aerobic and resistance exercise is even attainable let alone carry any benefits.

Before you shake you head and walk away, look at all these benefits of exercise!

  • Higher quality of life! - You will feel exhausted with cancer and exercise can change that!

  • Lower fatigue levels

  • Less side effect impact - You will struggle with side effects with cancer and exercise can change that!

  • Improved body satisfaction

  • Improved mood - You may struggle with depression with cancer and exercise can change that!

  • Easier to maintain body weight

  • Possible bone remodeling

  • Less muscle weakness and muscle wasting - You may feel weak with cancer and exercise can change that!

  • Improved functional ability - You independence will dwindle away with cancer and exercise can help that!

Use exercise to combat early symptoms of cancer and get ahead of your treatment, however, consult your physician if you have concerns.

Exercise includes several different categories depending on the goals of the person pursuing its benefits. The intensity, frequency and duration of exercise determined by your physical therapist. These guidelines can be found in the following valuable resource.

These categories and associated goals include:

  • Aerobic exercise
    The goal here to improve work capacity, control body weight, improve mood, reduce fatigue and improve quality of life.

  • Endurance exercise
    Goal is to improve the ability to do more and more over a longer period of time

  • Strength training
    Your goal is to improve strength and increase power.

  • Flexibility
    Goal is to improve range of motion and decrease stiffness specifically and overall.

  • Functional abilities like sit to stand and climbing steps
    Goal is to maintain as much independence as possible! Functional goals are the most important as they promote the reality of life.

  • Balance exercise
    Balance goals are simple - decrease your risk of falling.

When implementing exercise as part of your cancer treatment, consider how some of your medications may affect your body and thus your ability to exercise.
  • Keep in mind that glucocorticoids can cause muscle weakness and wasting. This can frustrate strength gain efforts. Bone pain can be caused by growth factors including growing muscle size.

  • Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy can cause fatigue, anemia and nausea. Again, more strikes against gains but stick with it!

  • Radiation therapy can cause skin break down that can become irritated with perspiration, muscle and joint movement and cardiopulmonary myopathies.

  • Not to mention the multitude of side effects that not only each medication brings but the combination of all of them.

How cancer treatment affects you.


Treatment

Acute Effects Chronic Effects

Surgery

Pain
Fatigue
Limited ROM
Pain
Loss of flexibility
Nerve damage

Radiation

Pain
Fatigue
Skin irritation
Pulmonary
Inflammation
Loss of flexibility
Cardiac and/or lung scarring
Fractures

Chemotherapy

Fatigue
Nausea
Anemia
Nerve damage
Muscle pain
Weight gain
Cardiomyopathy
Lung scarring
Nerve damage
Fatigue
Bone loss
Leukemia

Immunotherapy

Weight gain or loss
Fatigue
Flu-like syndrome
Nerve damage
Nerve damage
Myopathy

Taken from p. 167 of ACSM's Exercise Management for Persons with Chronic Diseases and Disabilities-3rd EditionACSM's Exercise Management for Persons with Chronic Diseases and Disabilities

Observation of this table shows that the effects of cancer treatment can be permanent and a battle to fight above and beyond the cancer itself. The beauty of the permanent fight is that it becomes second nature as you make dramatic lifestyle changes.


Precautions for including exercise in your cancer treatment:
  • By the time physical therapy happens on the scene, you may be very debilitated and deconditioned.

  • Active cancer treatment may cause muscle weakness and/or pain.

  • Other modes of exercise may need consideration if can not walk due to the cancer or the treatment.

  • Be aware of medication access lines when you exercise. These are easily caught and pulled out.

  • Any acute change in your general health status means you should stop exercise and talk to your physician. It is vital for physical therapists to assess patients before each exercise session.

  • You are an increased risk of bleeding if platelet count is less than 50,000/mm3. If you have balance issues be extra careful about falling.

  • Consider cardiovascular risks (co-morbidity) especially if you are anemic.


Tips for progressing your exercise routine.
  • Intensity, frequency and duration guidelines are very difficult to make with little research available for guidelines. These should be changed as a result of progress and working with patient ability as well as communication with the oncology physician.

  • Exercise programs must be progressive in nature for all cancer patients and survivors. Gently increase the challenge when your ability improves.

  • Changes in medical condition warrant possible adjustments in exercise programs as does the ebb of flow of every day! Proceed gently, with caution and with motivation and perseverance!

Remember that older patients may have co-morbid conditions such as heart disease, high blood pressure or diabetes, to name a few. These conditions may dictate the effect of exercise more so than the actual cancer itself. These fragile patients will need to start slow when mixing cancer and exercise. Consult your physician or physical therapist.

Some cancer treatments may increase the risk for heart disease and death from heart attack. This is important to keep in mind as you discuss how cancer and exercise can benefit your situation.

As you continue (or prevent) your cancer treatment journey , it's not too late to change things now for improved quality of life, better health and prevention of other complications.

Often diseases can send us on a chair-cation. Spending any time in your wheelchair can further deteriorate your health. I've written an extensive resource - Wheelchair Freedom! Get Help. Get Up. Get Out! that puts those in wheelchairs on and educated role to getting back on their feet with illustrated pictures, including how to get in and out of the car from a manual wheelchair and other life easy tips for your wheelchair world!


More suggested reading material that has changed my approach to life and prevention, what I eat and what I do with my body:




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Putting Some Kick Into Your Home Exercise Routine

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Treat Yourself to True, Lasting Health!

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